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Gemstones are the treasures of the earth. 

“I’ve never thought of my jewelry as trophies. We are only temporary custodians of its beauty.” Elizabeth Taylor

Found Decoration: The precious metals and gems used for decoration throughout human history have originated in the rocks surrounding them. Many of these began as mineral crystals that formed due to geological changes over Millennia ago. The crystals were extracted, cut, faceted, polished, and used in jewelry and other decorative items. Organic gems are biologically derived matter, such as pearls or Amber. These precious materials’ financial worth and perceived value can vary from society to society.

Rocks: Gemstones are directly mine from the rocks in which they were initially formed. Other gems released from their original rock by weathering can be mined from other deposits found in stream gravels. Rocks and minerals are created in the rock cycle. All rocks begin as igneous, but they are alternative by remelting, erosion, or metamorphosis over time. Sedimentary rock forms through weathering and erosion patterns and turns into metamorphic rock through specific temperature and pressure conditions. 

Color: How gems interact with light is the very essence of their nature. Light is the source of gemstone’s beauty, color, and sparkle. It is also a valuable tool for identifying gems since each has its own particular set of optical properties.

Fire: The brilliant color in gemstones is caused by the absorption and refraction of light of a particular wavelength. The term fire describes the flashes of light that make a gem sparkle when it’s moved. As with a prism, when the white light enters a gem, its component colors are dispersed. The greater the dispersion of white light, the greater the fire. The change in the speed of light as it passes from the air into the gem is called the refractive index (RI). The difference in direction, or bending of the light, can calculate the gem’s value. Diamonds have a high RI with lots of flashes of light seen when the gem is moved. 

Luster: A gem’s luster is the general appearance of its surface and refracted light. There are two basic types of luster, metallic and non-metallic. Precious metals have a metallic sheen, and gemstones have non-metallic. Lusters related to gems include vitreous, waxy, pearly, silky, resinous, greasy, earthy, metallic, and adamantine (diamonds).

Gemstones: Most gems are cut minerals. A gem is generally defined as any mineral that is highly prized for its beauty, durability, and rarity. It is used for personal adornment and has been enhanced by altering its shape, usually cutting and polishing. A broader definition includes a few rocks and a few organic substances. By far, most gems are cut from the crystal of mineral crystals of minerals. Precious metals are not considered to be gems.

Minerals: Minerals are the substances that make up the earth’s rocks. Minerals are defined by their chemical elements and the atomic structure of their crystallization. They are naturally occurring solids with specific chemical compositions and distinctive crystalline structures. Around a hundred types of minerals are considered standard, out of more than 5,100 known minerals. 

Birthstones: Birthstones have been around for centuries and represent the qualities and personalities of those born in certain months. Initially associated with the 12 Zodiac signs, each gem was thought to bring good luck to the person born under that sign. Later the gemstones were linked to months rather than astrological signs. Some believe birthstones originated from the rocks that adorned the Breastplate of Aaron, which symbolized the 12 tribes of Israel, and were later used to signify the 12 months of the year. 

Crystals: A crystal is a solid, the component atoms arranged in a particular repeating three-dimensional pattern. When these internal patterns produce a series of external, flat faces arranged geometrically, a crystal is created.

Native Elements: These chemical elements occur in nature combined with other elements, including gold, silver, and diamond. Most metals are extracted from minerals that contain them.

Organic Gems: Created through organic processes, organic gems are not commonly crystalline. Organic gems are generally softer.

Mining: Large-scale Mining for precious materials is mainly reserved for big names such as gold, silver, diamonds, and less precious materials used in the industry. Some large-scale mines also produce fine gem materials as a by-product. However, much gem mining is relatively small and is done using hand tools. Gems are found worldwide, but some areas are exceptionally rich sources.


Ancient Egypt: The Egyptians adorned themselves with vividly colored gems. Gems had great spiritual significance and were often worn for protection, to ward off evil, or to attract the attention of good spirits. Gems were showcased in wide semicircular colors worn by both men and women, with counterweights hanging down their backs to keep the jewelry in place. Amulets were popular, and richly adorned headpieces and circuited kept them from stepping. Earrings, bracelets, and amulets were also worn by all classes, further enhancing a wearer’s appearance. 

Byzantine Era: The Byzantine era is noted between the 4th and 15th centuries for its abundance of lavish jewelry. Like the Romans had done before them, the people of the Byzantine Empire wore jewelry for decoration, indicating status, and giving it diplomatic gifts. Byzantine jewelry often featured polished car break-ins prominently set and gold. The Empire’s extensive gold mine’s supplied the Jewelers in the metal state was intricately worked into the details open patterns always to show off brightly colored stones. Religion played an important role in jewelry design. Crucifix necklace pendants, earrings, and rings engraved with images of Christ, angels, and the Saints were thought to provide spiritual protection and express devotion as well as displaying the wearer’s wealth.

Biblical Stones: The Bible is full of references to precious gems, sapphires, diamonds, rubies, and pearls. And both the Old and New Testament, jewels are used as a metaphor to express how beautiful heaven will be. Consequently, the early medieval church often used gems and regalia to decorate altars on unique vessels and vestments used in church services and process her sessions. Jewels also played a role in the Christian tradition of holy relics. Skeletons were believed to be saintly relics draped in the jewelry of gold, silver, and precious stones. In contrast, more minor relics were housed in ornate reliquaries encrusted with precious metals and gems donated by worshippers. Such artifacts were intended to be physical manifestations of the spiritual treasures of the afterlife. 

Indian Gems: Sapphires, rubies, garnets, India has been famed for centuries as a source of some of the world’s most precious gemstones, a treasure Trove matched by the skills of its goldsmiths and Jewelers. Cultural traditions and techniques flowing from India to Europe and the US and back have enhanced the jewelry of both East and West. For thousands of years, jewelry has played an integral part in India’s history, not only as an art form but also as a spiritual Talisman, a signifier of social position, and a means of diplomatic leverage. It was also a motive for political and military conflict, especially during the ages of the Mughal Emperors. Diamonds have long been the most coveted gems and Indian cultures. 

Gem Industry: For thousands of years, diamonds were scarce. Still, the discovery and mining of massive diamond deposits in South Africa in 1870 changed the availability of the coveted rocks, which marked the beginnings of the modern gem industry. Thanks to these mines, World Diamond production exceeded 1 million carats per year for the first time in 1871. By 1907 it had reached five million carats, and it’s steadily increased throughout the century, hitting 126 million carats in 2000. Abundance Supply should have driven prices down, but the diamond producers acted quickly to maintain the value of their precious commodity. The British bomber behind the South African mine formed the De Beers cartel in 1888 to control every aspect of the new diamond trade, from production to marketing. The gem trade as it now exists was born as a result, with market prices dictated by the diamond cartel’s strict control of supply and demand. In contrast, the beer slogan, a diamond is forever, also helped to make diamonds synonymous with love and marriage.

Designer’s Hay Day: The late 19th century marks the beginning of a creative outpouring and the jewelry world that reached its height in the 1930s. One factor was the Abundant supply of large gems on the market for newly opened mines in South Africa. These larger gemstones required lighter settings, challenging Jewelers to develop new Styles. It was the perfect time to be a jewelry designer. Around this time, Hollywood also bought Fine Jewelry to the public attention. 

Mass Production: The Industrial Revolution changed the way people bought jewelry. Although many pieces were still made by hand, the spread of mass production brought jewelry within reach of the new middle class. Many designers opened stores to sell their works to the general public For the First Time. 

High Society: European Aristocrats have always been the primary patrons of luxury jewelry houses. With Europe ruined by War and political upheaval in the twentieth century, Jewelers turned to America’s new big spenders, the stars, socialites, and heiresses. Many of the super-rich were both trendsetters and had the creative vision to afford the big budgets. 

Modern Brands: The influence of marketing and advertising from mid 19th century onward transformed the way consumers perceived jewelry. It was no longer simply an asset with a value based on gem quality, metal content, and rarity. The value now came from its brand Association. Jewelry was presented to the consumer as a symbol of a particular lifestyle that extended Beyond rings and watches to Encompass fragrances and home where is, culture and the Arts, exclusive sports events in the celebrities on the red carpet. Tiffany & Co took the lead in the US in 1845. Publishing its Blue Book Jewelry catalog was one of the first of its kind. 

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